Writer’s cramp is among the most common focal dystonias. Patients with writer’s cramp have a task-specific dystonia, which occurs while writing. Patients with writer’s cramp face severe handicap and disability in their jobs or education, as they are unable to write properly. A diagnosis of writer’s cramp can be made on the basis of historyContinue reading “FOCAL DYSTONIA-WRITER’S CRAMP”

Occurrence of New-onset Oro-facial Dyskinesia after starting LEVOSULPIRIDE

This gentleman was being treated for Parkinson’s disease for several years and was doing well on medications. However, he presented with recent worsening of Parkinsonian symptoms. In addition, he had developed new onset orofacial dyskinesias, which he did not have before. These new symptoms developed after he was started on levosulpiride for his stomach-related ailment.Continue reading “Occurrence of New-onset Oro-facial Dyskinesia after starting LEVOSULPIRIDE”

TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA- Description of Symptoms

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is among the commonest causes for episodic facial pain. It commonly affects one side of face, however, in some patients, both sides of face may get affected. Here, we have a patient suffering from left sided trigeminal neuralgia, describing her symptoms. Pain is episodic, shock-like, lasting for a few seconds. Pain isContinue reading “TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA- Description of Symptoms”


Polyminimyoclonus refers to involuntary, jerky, small amplitude, tremor-like movements, most commonly seen in hands. The commonest cause is degenerative anterior horn cell disease, commonly known as motor neuron disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These tremor-like movements (polyminimyoclonus) correspond to fasciculations in forearm muscles.


Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are common in clinical practice. The diagnosis of PNES is commonly missed or delayed. The diagnosis of PNES should be suspected, if a person has repeated seizures despite being on good anti-epileptic drugs. Other features that help in accurate diagnosis of PNES are: 1. The semiology of non-epileptic seizure is unlikeContinue reading “PSYCHOGENIC NONEPILEPTIC SEIZURES”


Hemiplegia refers to weakness of one half of the body, mostly affecting the upper and lower limbs. In the acute phase, there is hypotonia and weakness of affected limbs. As recovery occurs over the next few days to weeks, muscle tone increases, resulting in spasticity. In this video, you can see the hemiplegic gait, affectingContinue reading “HEMIPLEGIC GAIT”

RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME-Description of Symptoms by a Patient

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is characterized by unpleasant or uncomfortable symptoms in the legs and an irresistible urge to move them. The sensation is most often described as pain or ache. Symptoms usually affect both legs and are worse at nights. Symptoms are exacerbated with inactivity and reduced with activity such as moving the legs.Continue reading “RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME-Description of Symptoms by a Patient”


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative neurological disease affecting only the motor system. It is also referred to as motor neuron disease (MND) and is characterized by muscle wasting, weakness and fasciculations. Fasciculations refer to involuntary contractions/twitching of affected muscles. Affected muscles are wasted (thin) and weak. In this video, you can see fasciculationsContinue reading “FASCICULATIONS”

Gait in Cerebellar Disease

Cerebellum is closely involved in maintaining balance while walking. People suffering from cerebellar disease often present with imbalance while walking, which is referred to as gait ataxia. Cerebellar disease manifests with ipsilateral symptoms, which means that in a person with left sided cerebellar disease, the person would sway to left side while walking. In aContinue reading “Gait in Cerebellar Disease”

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