ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND CORONA VIRUS DISEASE Alcohol use is a global health concern, ranking seventh among the leading causes of death and disability.  Alcohol consumption is associated with many serious illnesses including liver cirrhosis, dementia, cerebellar ataxia, nutritional deficiency, etc and it is also a major risk factor for road traffic accidents. Despite these healthContinue reading “ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND CORONA VIRUS DISEASE”


Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are common in clinical practice. The diagnosis of PNES is commonly missed or delayed. The diagnosis of PNES should be suspected, if a person has repeated seizures despite being on good anti-epileptic drugs. Other features that help in accurate diagnosis of PNES are: 1. The semiology of non-epileptic seizure is unlikeContinue reading “PSYCHOGENIC NONEPILEPTIC SEIZURES”

Calcified Enhancing Solitary Cysticercus Granuloma causing Focal Seizures

Solitary cysticercus granuloma (SCG) is a common cause of seizures in India as well as several other countries. The granuloma can be a cause of chronic epilepsy. In some cases, the granuloma resolves within a few months, however, it can last for several years in many patients. Calcification is a sign of healed SCG. EnhancementContinue reading “Calcified Enhancing Solitary Cysticercus Granuloma causing Focal Seizures”

Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor (DNET) causing Refractory Focal Seizures

Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET) is relatively uncommon benign tumor, responsible for causing partial seizures in children, many of those cases may be medically refractory. The most common location is temporal lobe, as in this case (about 65% of cases). About 20% cases involve frontal lobe. The remainder of cases involve caudate nucleus, cerebellum and pons.Continue reading “Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor (DNET) causing Refractory Focal Seizures”

Subependymal Calcification Demonstrated on SWI MRI in a Case of Tuberous Sclerosis

Tuberous sclerosis is a multi-systemic genetic disease, which predominantly manifests with seizures and cutaneous manifestations (such as adenoma sebaceum). Abnormalities on brain scan include cortical tubers, subependymal nodules (sually calcified) and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA). MRI is usually preferred over CT scan as tubers and SEGAs are better appreciated on MRI as compared toContinue reading “Subependymal Calcification Demonstrated on SWI MRI in a Case of Tuberous Sclerosis”

Psychogenic Non-epileptic Seizures

Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures are common. These seizures are not due to epileptiform discharges in the brain and EEG recording during the seizure episodes are normal. On careful history taking, an underlying stress or psychiatric diagnosis can be found in most of these cases. These are also referred to as pseudo-seizures, hysterical seizures or dissociative (conversion)Continue reading “Psychogenic Non-epileptic Seizures”

Focal Cortical Gliosis and ULEGYRIA Causing Focal Epilepsy

Focal epilepsy affects only one side of body and in most cases, consciousness is preserved during seizures. However, in some cases, seizures can spread to the opposite side (known as secondary generalisation), which can lead to loss of consciousness. In several cases of focal epilepsy, structural changes on MRI can be seen. This case isContinue reading “Focal Cortical Gliosis and ULEGYRIA Causing Focal Epilepsy”

Natural Progression of Neurocysticercosis Without Treatment

Single lesion of neurocysticercosis (tape worm infection of brain) is a common cause of seizures. In most of these cases, only anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are advised. Anti-helminthic treatment with albendazole is usually not recommended, as most of these lesions spontaneously resolve over time. This is in contrast to patients with multiple brain lesions in NCC,Continue reading “Natural Progression of Neurocysticercosis Without Treatment”


Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the commonest causes of symptomatic epilepsy in India and many other countries. It is caused by Taenia solium (tapeworm infection). On CT scan, signs of active (alive) worm include: 1. Perilesional edema (seen as hypodensity in plain and contrast images, 2. Enhancement of lesion (disc-like or ring like) on contrastContinue reading “CALCIFIED ACTIVE NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS”

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