Olfactory Bulb Edema in a Patient with Loss of Smell due to COVID-19 infection

Loss of smell (anosmia) and loss of taste (dysgeusia) have been commonly noted in people with COVID-19 infection, including those without any other symptoms such as fever, cough or breathing difficulty. In a recent case, anosmia developed on day 7 of infection. MRI showed edema (swelling) and increased signal of olfactory bulbs and tracts. PatientContinue reading “Olfactory Bulb Edema in a Patient with Loss of Smell due to COVID-19 infection”

MRI BRAIN in a Case of Cardio-embolic Stroke

Cardio-embolic strokes refer to infarcts in brain due to embolism from heart. Typically, infarcts in cardio-embolic strokes involve multiple arterial territories. In the MRI shown above, we can see multiple acute infarcts in bilateral anterior as well as posterior circulation territories. This patient was a 60 year old lady, with patent foramen ovale (PFO) andContinue reading “MRI BRAIN in a Case of Cardio-embolic Stroke”

Incidental Pineal Cyst on MRI Brain

Pineal cysts may be incidentally noted on MRI brain. A pineal cyst is called “incidental” if it does not produce any symptoms or signs. In a large series of >42,000 MRI brains, incidental pineal cysts were noted in 281 (0.67%) patients. About two-thirds of them were females. The mean size of incidental pineal cyst wasContinue reading “Incidental Pineal Cyst on MRI Brain”

“Dawson’s Fingers” on MRI Brain in Small Vessel Ischemia

Dawson’s fingers refer to the periventricular white matter lesions, which extend perpendicular to the lateral ventricles and/or callosal junction. These represent perivenular inflammation, and are hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS), a demyelinating disorder of brain, optic nerves and spinal cord. Dawson’s fingers, however, can be seen in conditions other than MS too. The commonest conditionContinue reading ““Dawson’s Fingers” on MRI Brain in Small Vessel Ischemia”


Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a sporadic phakomatoses and is characterized by angiomatosis of skin, eye and meninges. . Patients present with epilepsy and developmental delay since childhood. Clinical examination reveals reddish discoloration of face (referred to as port wine stain), sclera and limbs, usually on one side of body. Imaging findings of SWS are typical.Continue reading “MRI BRAIN FINDINGS IN STURGE-WEBER SYNDROME”

Diagnosis and Management of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH)

IDIOPATHIC INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION What is Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH)? IIH is a condition characterized by raised intracranial pressure (ICP) of unknown etiology. It is also known as benign intracranial hypertension or pseudotumor cerebri. What are the common symptoms of IIH? The commonest symptom of IIH is headache. In some cases, visual blurring or double visionContinue reading “Diagnosis and Management of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH)”

Ptosis due to Extraocular Muscle Swelling

60-year old gentleman presented with 5-day history of left sided ptosis and proptosis. He had conjunctival congestion. He was a diabetic, however, he had no history of thyroid disease. MRI brain showed swelling of left superior rectus, levator palpebrae superioris and lateral rectus muscles on the left side. Differential diagnosis include: Thyroid eye disease, idiopathicContinue reading “Ptosis due to Extraocular Muscle Swelling”

CAVERNOMA Causing Chronic Focal Epilepsy

FLAIR MRI images shows a left frontal hypointense lesion with multiple flow voids, surrounded by hyperintense areas, suggestive of a cavernoma with surrounding gliosis. The patient had a history of right focal motor seizures (with or without secondary generalization) of 5 years duration, which was well controlled with medications (oxcarbazepine, sodium valproate and clobazam). Therefore,Continue reading “CAVERNOMA Causing Chronic Focal Epilepsy”

Alexia Without Agraphia in a Case of Stroke

50-year old gentleman presented with acute onset inability to read (alexia). However, he was able to write (he had no agraphia). On dictation, he could write on paper, however, he was not able to read what he had written. This clinical syndrome is called “alexia without agraphia” or pure alexia. MRI brain showed an acuteContinue reading “Alexia Without Agraphia in a Case of Stroke”

Huntington’s Disease (HD)

This video shows a 55 year old woman with features of generalised involuntary movements, predominantly affecting facial muscles and upper limbs (distal > proximal). Involuntary movements consist of chorea and athetosis. Occasional facial tics are also seen. Her other clinical features were dementia and behavioural changes. There was a positive family history of similar illness.Continue reading “Huntington’s Disease (HD)”

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