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Focal Status Epilepticus as a Presenting Symptom of SARS CoV2 Infection

Focal Status Epilepticus as a Presenting Symptom of SARS CoV2 Infection COVID 19, caused by SARS CoV2 virus is a global pandemic and has affected more than 3 million people worldwide. Most patients with COVID 19 present with respiratory symptoms, however, neurological involvement is not uncommon. Previously, stroke, Guillain Barre Syndrome, meningitis and encephalitis haveContinue reading “Focal Status Epilepticus as a Presenting Symptom of SARS CoV2 Infection”


Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a sporadic phakomatoses and is characterized by angiomatosis of skin, eye and meninges. . Patients present with epilepsy and developmental delay since childhood. Clinical examination reveals reddish discoloration of face (referred to as port wine stain), sclera and limbs, usually on one side of body. Imaging findings of SWS are typical.Continue reading “MRI BRAIN FINDINGS IN STURGE-WEBER SYNDROME”


Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are common in clinical practice. The diagnosis of PNES is commonly missed or delayed. The diagnosis of PNES should be suspected, if a person has repeated seizures despite being on good anti-epileptic drugs. Other features that help in accurate diagnosis of PNES are: 1. The semiology of non-epileptic seizure is unlikeContinue reading “PSYCHOGENIC NONEPILEPTIC SEIZURES”

Cerebral Hemiatrophy in a Child with Epilepsy

14-year old child presented with right focal motor with secondary generalized seizures of six months duration. He had a total of three episodes of seizures during this period. There was mild right hemiparesis, however, speech was not impaired. MRI brain showed features of left cerebral hemiatrophy- widened sulci, thinning of gyri and ex-vacuo dilatation ofContinue reading “Cerebral Hemiatrophy in a Child with Epilepsy”

Calcified Enhancing Solitary Cysticercus Granuloma causing Focal Seizures

Solitary cysticercus granuloma (SCG) is a common cause of seizures in India as well as several other countries. The granuloma can be a cause of chronic epilepsy. In some cases, the granuloma resolves within a few months, however, it can last for several years in many patients. Calcification is a sign of healed SCG. EnhancementContinue reading “Calcified Enhancing Solitary Cysticercus Granuloma causing Focal Seizures”

Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor (DNET) causing Refractory Focal Seizures

Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET) is relatively uncommon benign tumor, responsible for causing partial seizures in children, many of those cases may be medically refractory. The most common location is temporal lobe, as in this case (about 65% of cases). About 20% cases involve frontal lobe. The remainder of cases involve caudate nucleus, cerebellum and pons.Continue reading “Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor (DNET) causing Refractory Focal Seizures”

CAVERNOMA Causing Chronic Focal Epilepsy

FLAIR MRI images shows a left frontal hypointense lesion with multiple flow voids, surrounded by hyperintense areas, suggestive of a cavernoma with surrounding gliosis. The patient had a history of right focal motor seizures (with or without secondary generalization) of 5 years duration, which was well controlled with medications (oxcarbazepine, sodium valproate and clobazam). Therefore,Continue reading “CAVERNOMA Causing Chronic Focal Epilepsy”

Psychogenic Non-epileptic Seizures

Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures are common. These seizures are not due to epileptiform discharges in the brain and EEG recording during the seizure episodes are normal. On careful history taking, an underlying stress or psychiatric diagnosis can be found in most of these cases. These are also referred to as pseudo-seizures, hysterical seizures or dissociative (conversion)Continue reading “Psychogenic Non-epileptic Seizures”

Focal Cortical Gliosis and ULEGYRIA Causing Focal Epilepsy

Focal epilepsy affects only one side of body and in most cases, consciousness is preserved during seizures. However, in some cases, seizures can spread to the opposite side (known as secondary generalisation), which can lead to loss of consciousness. In several cases of focal epilepsy, structural changes on MRI can be seen. This case isContinue reading “Focal Cortical Gliosis and ULEGYRIA Causing Focal Epilepsy”

Use of Susceptibility-Weighted MRI for detecting calcified Neurocysticercosis

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the the commonest cause of symptomatic epilepsy in India and many other countries. NCC infection is caused by Taenia solium (tapeworm). Active NCC infection is suggested by presence of scolex, contrast-enhancement, perilesional edema and cystic appearance on brain scan (CT or MRI, however, MRI is preferred). Active infection increases the risk ofContinue reading “Use of Susceptibility-Weighted MRI for detecting calcified Neurocysticercosis”